Ghost Forests – An Accelerating Phenomenon

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Ghost forests is a general term used to describe stands of long-dead trees that have typically been submerged in ocean water. Sometimes these forests and generated by sudden catastrophic events such as earthquakes, but scientists are beginning to focus on the stands of trees slowly dying by encroaching salt water. As sea levels rise, saltwater is drifting into freshwater areas and creating marshland. There have also be incidences where storms bring in salt water, such as in the case of Hurricane Sandy, but it is not receding as quickly as the norm.

Scientists are now using these ghost forests as an indicator of climate change and  they are becoming very prevalent along the eastern shore board, all the way down to Texas. the main focus on the growth of these ghost forests is the rate at which they are accelerating, which is currently very debated. Studies are being conducted that show the forests are spreading at an accelerated rate, but the findings are still inconclusive. According to one study, 100,000 acres along the Chesapeake Bay have been lost in the past 100 years, but photos show the rate of losses is currently four times higher than it was in the 1930’s. The transition from forest to marshland does come with a variety of pros and cons, including less habitat for migratory birds, but more habitat for saltwater fish. Tree species that are being affected include Atlantic white cedar, cypress, loblolly pines, and Eastern red cedar.

Find the original article here.

Photo credit and information on how this phenomenon is affecting North Carolina’s coastline here.

Summer Turf Pests and Diseases

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Be on the Watch For Summer Pests and Diseases

Earlier this week we sent out an e-mail regarding some of the bigger turf threats for the summer. We wanted to replicate that information below as we feel it plays a crucial role in keeping lawns healthy through the toughest part of the summer. If you would like to subscribe to our monthly newsletter, click here.

Nutsedge can be one of the most troublesome weeds found in lawns and other plant beds. Unlike most weeds, it is not controlled with application of traditional grass or broadleaf herbicides and an outbreak of nutsedge can appear at any time and any place, including landscaped areas with woody ornamentals and perennials.

The active ingredient in the herbicide used to control nutsedge is absorbed into the leaf tissue within 24 to 48 hours and is translocated through the vascular system, interrupting amino acid production within the plant. It is recommended that the plant not be pulled out of the ground as the “nutlets,” or underground rhizomes, will be disturbed and can germinate into new plants.

A surfacant is required for maximum absorption and should be sprayed before outside temperatures reach 90 degrees, and is rainfast in four hours.

In cases of heavy infestation, it is recommended that a pre-emergent herbicide be applied. Spot treatment is preferred as opposed to blanket coverage.

Brown Patch is a fungal problem for our cool season grasses such as fescue and perennial rye, and it is the most damaging of all turf grass diseases.

It begins with late and lush spring growth and the arrival of heat and humidity, and is most active when temperatures reach 80-85 degrees and night air stays above 70 degrees.

Not only is this fungal disease airborne, it can also be spread by mowers, foot traffic, and animals. Late day rains and irrigation not having ample time to dry out only add to the spread of this disease.

If possible, increase light and air penetration or movement by pruning over-hanging tree limbs and shrubs. Mowing frequently may also help limit the spread of this disease.

Due to the high cost of herbicides used to treat these two common problems, most traditional lawn care programs do not include the treatment. Only after discovery and identification should treatment begin and continue until under control.

Also, if you see June bugs and Japanese beetles, watch out for grubs! These beetles lay their eggs in turf areas and the larval stage of the lifecycle causes severe damage to turf as they eat the roots of the grass. This insect should be treated as soon as possible after discovery.

If you have any questions about these turf issues or if you are seeing symptoms and would like to begin a treatment program, please give us a call at 336-765-6340.

Photo Credit: From our Pinterest board “Backyard Inspiration

Larmore Managers Featured in the Winston-Salem Journal

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Today’s edition of the Winston-Salem Journal included an article about the Rooftop Garden at Brenner Children’s Hospital, featuring our managers Andy Jones and Ben Butner. LLA originally designed and installed the garden and Jones and Butner have been planing, planting, and maintaining the annual containers for several years. The article summarizes the history of the garden and how it has impacted those who use it. Check out the full article and photo credit here.

 

Do April Showers Bring May Flowers?

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We’ve all heard the expression “April showers bring May flowers,” but most probably aren’t familiar with the origin of the phrase and also question how valid the statement is. After all, we already have plenty of flowers in April between dogwoods, cherries, azaleas and the like.

It turns out that this popular idiom can be traced back to the 1300’s when a version of the phrase was published in Middle English. After that, various sources are found in England and Ireland where “April showers bring May showers” is pretty truthful. In these climates April does often bring periods of heavier rain and the phrase was probably used to give residents something to hope for during the cloudy, wet weather. However, this may not be the case in Winston-Salem where we have a higher amount of average rainfall in May. In April we typically receive 3.7″ and May we receive 3.86″ disproving the phrase we use so commonly. This month we have already received 2.09″ of rain.

It is also interesting to note that most flowering plants are more affected by warm temperatures when it comes to blooming time than rainfall. This spring is a prime example, as we saw plenty of trees flowering prematurely and daffodils sprang to the surface earlier than ever. Research shows that first flowering dates correlate with warm temperatures and the sooner temperatures rise, the earlier plants bloom. As was the case this year, having warm temperatures early can be detrimental to flowering plants, especially for crops such as apples, peaches, and cherries. If plants begin flowering prior to our last hard frost it will result in cold damage to foliage, flowers, and developing fruits. While it’s fairly reliable to say that if our average spring temperatures continue to warm we should see earlier and earlier flowering, it is unclear what the long-term results will be or if certain plants that require a chilling period will stop flowering altogether.

Sources:

http://www.usclimatedata.com/climate/winston-salem/north-carolina/united-states/usnc1469

https://fivethirtyeight.com/datalab/do-april-showers-bring-may-flowers/

http://feelingsandflowers.com/136/april-showers-bring-may-flowers-%E2%80%93-discussing-the-rhyme/